Resources

 

The Four Corners states, Nevada, and Wyoming are home to abundant wind resources.  The following links provide information on Market, Cost and Integration Reports; Assessments and Road Maps; Wind Resource Maps; Resource Websites; and Fact Sheets. Information is listed by category then date of publication. The 4CWRC has highlighted noteworthy reports with bold titles.  

 

Market, Cost and Integration Reports

State of the Wind Industry in the Regions

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy, March 2016
  • Baranowski, R.; Oteri, F.; Baring-Gould, I.; Tegen, S.
  • "This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development on regional and state levels."

2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy, August 2015
  • Bolinger, M.; Wiser, R.
  • Full Report in pdf
  • Powerpoint Presentation of the Report
  • "This annual report - now in its ninth year - provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2014." 

Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

  • U.S. Department of Energy, May 2015
  • "[A]nalyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed."

Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

  • U.S. Department of Energy, March 2015
  • "Document[s] the contributions of wind to date and envision[s] a future where wind continues to provide key contributions to the nation's energy portfolio.  Building on and updating the 2008 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, the new Wind Vision Report quantifies the economic, environmental, and social benefits of a robust wind energy future and the actions that wind stakeholders can take to make it a reality."

The Power of Transformation - Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems- Executive Summary

  • International Energy Agency, February 2014
  • “Latest in a series of IEA reports shedding light on the challenges and opportunities of integrating VRE into power systems globally.”

 Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Series

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • The 3 phase series examines if large amounts of wind and solar energy can be integrated into the electric power system of the Western Interconnection.

Phase 3 –

  • Coming soon
  • Examines “large-scale stability and frequency response [in the West] with high wind and solar penetration, and identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities or other alternative means.” 

Phase 2 –

  • September 2013
  • Was built on Phase I and it “considered mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear and tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 min.” 

Phase 1 –

  • May 2010
  • Analyzed the “benefits and challenges of integrating up to 35% wind and solar energy in the WestConnect sub region and, more broadly, the Western Interconnection, in 2017.”

2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy, August 2014
  • Bolinger, M.; Wiser, R.
  • Full Report in pdf
  • Powerpoint Presentation of the Report
  • Comprehensive annual report that provides data and analysis on installation, industry, technology, performance and cost trends, and policy and market drivers for wind energy.

2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, August 2014
  • AC Orrell: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  • HE Rhoads-Weaver: eFormative Option
  • This report "describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind market in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook."

2012 Renewable Electricity Futures Study

  • U.S. Department of Energy
  • Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Hand, M.M.; Mai, T.; Meshek, M; Porro, G.; Reilly, J.M.; Sandor, D.
  • In this 80% renewable energy study DOE analyzed the “grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system.” This seminal study concluded “that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of total U.S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.”

 Meeting Renewable Energy Targets in the West at Least Cost:  The Integration Challenge

  • Western Governors’ Association, June 2012
  • Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.: Exeter Associates
  • Bird, L.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Hogan, M.; Lamont, D.; Schwartz, L.: Regulatory Assistance Project
  • Kirby, B.: Consultant
  • The report identifies “ways to reduce costs to the region’s electricity consumers for integrating wind and solar, identify barriers to adopting these measures and recommend possible state actions.”

 Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the International Energy Administration, May 2012
  • Hand, M.; Lantz, E.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Wiser, R.: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • International “review of historical costs, …near-term market trends,…methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and ….the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array … of studies and scenarios. It also highlights high-level market variables that have influenced wind energy costs in the past and are expected to do so into the future.”

 Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, June 2011
  • Ela, E.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B. (Consultant); Lew, D.; Milligan, M.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.: U.S. Department of Energy
  • The “report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.”

2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, March 2013
  • Hand, M.; Lantz, E.; Maples, B.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.; Tegen, S.
  • A review of the levelized cost of energy for wind, based on representative project types in the U.S.

 

Assessments and Road Maps

A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January 2016
  • Wiser, R.; Barbose, G.; Heeter, J.; Mai, T.; Bird, L.; Bolinger, M.; Carpenter, A.; Heath, G.; Keyser, D.; Macknick, J.; Mills, A.; Millstein, D.
  • This report "explores the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS), both retrospectively and prospectively."

Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August 2013
  • Billman, L.; Keyser, D.
  • The JEDI model uses an "input-output methodology to estimate gross jobs and economic impact of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants."

Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, August 2013
  • Gelman, R.; Hurlbut, D.; McLaren, J.
  • The study examines the renewable energy resources likely to remain undeveloped in the West ….in 2025…….what it takes to get them to market, and how cost effectively they fit into a diverse portfolio of electric generation technologies.

2012 Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap Report

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, November 2012
  • Forsyth, T.; Oteri, F.; Sinclair, K.; Smith, J.
  • “Road map for built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) - turbines located in an urban or suburban environment….Most BWTs are ……small wind turbines (SWTs)……100 kilowatts (kW) or less.” 

2010 Large Scale Offshore Wind Power in the U.S. - Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers

  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September 2010
  • Musial, W.: National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Ram, B.: Energetics
  • "This report provides a broad understanding of today's wind industry and the offshore resource, as well as the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits."

 

Wind Resource Maps 

2014 Updated Wind Potential Capacity Map

NREL Wind Prospector Maps

National Wind Resource Maps including:

State-specific maps are also available by clicking on the following maps:

 

Resource Websites

American Wind Energy Association

Distributed Wind Energy Association

WINDExchange

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

U.S. Department of Energy

Environmental Protection Agency Clean Power Plan

Environmental Protection Agency Clean Power Plan Clean Energy Incentive Program

American Wind Wildlife Institute

Small Business Vouchers Pilot

 

Fact Sheets and Other Resources

Four Corners Wind Resource Center Fact Sheets and Case Studies

U.S. Energy Information Administration Interactive State Profiles

WINDExchange Slideshows

  • Energy Efficiency and Reneweable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, October 2014
  • Concise overviews of topics including wind energy integration, benefits, and impacts

Wind Energy Benefits

  • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, January 2015
  • Lists 10 benefits of wind energy

County Strategies for Successfully Managing and Promoting Wind Power: Implementing Wind Ordinances in America’s Counties  

  • National Association of Counties and Distributed Wind Energy Association
  • Guide for counties to understanding wind energy.  Provides case studies of different counties.

 Wind Power’s Consumer Benefits

  • American Wind Energy Association, February 2014
  • Fact sheet on electric rate declines from wind energy

 Western Renewable Energy Reviews

  • Interwest Energy Alliance, 2008 – 2014
  • Policy summary for states of AZ, CO, MT, NM, NV and UT

Renewables: Energy You Can Count On - How Renewable Electricity Standards Deliver Economic Benefits

  • Union of Concerned Scientists, May 2013
  • Summary of economic benefits from renewable energy development and renewable portfolio standards nationally, with case studies from several states.

 Renewables: Energy You Can Count On - Ramping Up Renewables

  • Union of Concerned Scientists, April 2013
  • This paper provides information on growth in renewable energy, how renewable energy fits into the transmission grid, approaches to maintain reliability, and potential to use more renewable energy.

Planning and Zoning for Wind Energy

  • American Planning Association, January 2012
  • Bibliography of resources on planning and zoning

Wind Energy and Wind Park Siting and Zoning Best Practices and Guidance for States

  • National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, January 2012
  • National Regulatory Research Institute
  • Stanton, T.
  • The report reviews all the siting and zoning practices in all 50 states, summarizes best practices, and presents guidelines for wind power development.